Smallpox Eraducation  Archives

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Summary

Country Last endemic case Importations during SEP Country Last endemic case Importations during SEP
Argentina 1966 1967, 1970 Guyana 1951 None
Bolivia 1960 None Paraguay 1960 None
Brazil 1971 None post-1971 Peru 1966 None
Chile 1954 None Suriname 1920 None
Colombia 1965 None Uruguay 1957 1968, 1969
Ecuador 1963 None Venezuela 1956 None
French Guiana 1904 1968

South America was certified as smallpox-free by an International Commission on 25 Aug 1973 (PAHO/CD.22/19).


WHO's Regional Office for the Americas was established in 1949, and is run by the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), the executive arm of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Unlike other WHO Regional Offices, PAHO is a fully autonomous organization that acts for WHO.

Dr Fred L. Soper, Director of the PASB, strongly supported the concept of eradication, and a program for smallpox eradication in the Americas began in 1950. By 1959, smallpox transmission had been interrupted in all but 5 countries. Four of these (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador) interrupted transmission by 1966.

Thus Brazil was the only South American country with endemic smallpox at the beginning of the SEP. However, it shared a border with all but 2 countries in the region and had large remote areas in the Amazon basin that had few, if any, health services.


Year Title Authors Source
1958 Smallpox vaccination in Latin America WHO Chron 1958 12:3-7 PAHO
1967 Resolution: Recommitment to smallpox eradication
PAHO 17th Directing Council, 19th session of the Regional Committee, 2-12 Oct 1967
PAHO CD17.R22 PDF
1967 [Laboratory diagnosis of smallpox in the Americas]. Spanish Noble J, Sales Gomes JF, Rodrigues BA, Bica AN Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1967 2(166-167):531-536 OPEN
1971 Smallpox eradication
PAHO Directing Council (20th meeting), WHO Regional Committee (23rd meeting, 23 Aug 1971
PAHO CD20/6 PDF
1971 Resolution: Compulsory vaccination
PAHO 20th Directing Council, 23th session of the Regional Committee, 27 Sep-8 Oct 1971
PAHO CD20.R23 PDF
1973 Resolution: Smallpox eradicated from the Americas CD22.R17 PDF
1973 Report on the status of smallpox eradication in the Americas
PAHO 22nd Directing Council, 25th session of the Regional Committee, 8-18 Oct 1973
PAHO CD22/19 PDF
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19
1975 [Erradicación de la viruela en las Américas] . Spanish
Smallpox eradication in the Americas. English
Rodrigues BA Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1975 78(4):358-383
Bull Pan Am Health Organ 1975 9(1):53-68
OPEN
OPEN
2010 30th anniversary of smallpox eradication and establishment of the PAHO Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement
146th Session of the Executive Committee, Washington DC, 21-25 Jun 2010
PAHO CE146/INF-5

Argentina

Year Title Authors Source
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 47, 18 Sep 1970
Outbreak: Argentina
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(38):397-403 PDF
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 49, 30 Oct 1970
Outbreak update: Argentina
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(44):485-9 PDF
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Argentina SE/WP/71.25
1972 Report on a survey to determine the status of smallpox and levels of smallpox immunity Hiriart JJ, da Silveira CM WHO/SE/72/37 PDF
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Bolivia

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Bolivia SE/WP/71.29
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Brazil

Year Title Authors Source
SMALLPOX CONTROL BEFORE 1967
1965 Studies of smallpox by jet injection in Brazil
PAHO, Advisory Committee on Medical Research, 4th Meeting, Washington DC, 14-18 Jun 1965
PAHO RES 4/4 PDF
1965 [Smallpox and alastrim, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. Portuguese Clausell DT Hospital (Rio J) 1965 68(1):177-181
1966 [Importance of the jet injector (injection without a needle) in mass immunization projects in Brazil: Results with anti-tetanus and anti-smallpox vaccines]. Portuguese Veronesi R, Gomes LF, Soares MA, Corrêa A Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med São Paulo 1966 21(2):92-95
SMALLPOX DURVEILLANCE REPORTS
1968 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 8, 13 Sep 1968 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 43(37):468-472 PDF
1968 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 13, 22 Nov 1968 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 43(47):599-604 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 18, 21 Feb 1969
Outbreak in a city "100% vaccinated"
Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(8):150-8 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 25, 6 Jun 1969 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(23):381-7 PDF
1969 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 33, 7 Nov 1969 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 44(45):613-9 PDF
1970 Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 47, 18 Sep 1970 Smallpox unit, WHO WER 45(38):397-403 PDF
1970Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 47, 18 Sep 1970Smallpox unit, WHOWER 45(38):397-403PDF
1971Smallpox Surveillance Report No. 56, 16 Apr 1971Smallpox unit, WHOWER 46(16):158-60PDF
SMALLPOX ERADICATION PROGRAMME
1969 Epidemiologic investigation of a smallpox outbreak in a town reported to be "100 per cent vaccinated " Morris L, da Silva JO, Martinez AV SE/72.6
Am J Epidemiol 1970 92(5):294-300
PDF
1970 Epidemiological characteristics of smallpox outbreaks in two small Brazilian villages
Arnt N, Morris L WHO/SE/70.22 PDF
1970 Smallpox in the municipio of São Paulo, Brazil, 1945-1969: A 25 year review Morris L, Cappello H, Soares R, Ponce de Leon J, Leser W WHO/SE/70.23
HSMHA Health Rep 1971 86(1):87-91
PDF
OPEN
1970 Inter-Regional Seminar on Surveillance and Assessment in Smallpox Eradication. New Delhi, India, 30 Nov - 5 Dec 1970
Surveillance in the Brazilian smallpox eradication programme, 1970 de Faria GB, de Carvalho Filho EC, Rodrigues BA, Ponce de Leon J WHO/SE/71.30:60-70 PDF
Investigation of hospital-associated smallpox: Vitoria, Espirito Santo Morris L, de Lemos AL, da Silva OJ WHO/SE/71.30:71-8
Am J Public Health Nations Health 1970 60(12):2331-5
PDF
OPEN
1970 Smallpox eradication in Brazil, 1967-69 de Carvalho Filho ES, Morris L, de Lemos AL, Ponce de Leon J, Escobar A, da Silva OJ Bull World Health Organ 1970 43(6):797-807 OPEN
1970 [Analysis of specimens for the diagnosis of smallpox in a laboratory of Brazil]. Spanish Schatzmayr HG, Mesquita JA Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1970 69(6):500-4 OPEN
1970 A clinical and laboratory study of smallpox in Brazil. Accuracy of the laboratory diagnosis of smallpox in patients with Brazilian variola minor infection Noble J Jr, Long GW, Kirchner E, Sesso J Am J Trop Med Hyg 1970 19(6):1020-8
1970 [Vaccination of Xikrin, Suruí and Gaviao Indians against smallpox]. Portuguese Vieira Filho JP AMB Rev Assoc Med Bras 1970 16(10):357-60
1971 Epidemiology of variola minor in Brazil: A study of 33 outbreaks de Quadros CA, Morris L, da Costa EA, Arnt N, Tigre CH WHO/SE/71.32
Bull World Health Organ 1972 46(2)165-171
PDF
OPEN
1971 [Anti-smallpox vaccination in children under 6 months of age]. Portuguese Wiehe W Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1971 70(3):260-3 OPEN
1971 [Epidemiological study of smallpox cases in Mostardas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. Portuguese da Silveira CM, Tigre CH, Lima JF Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1971 71(2):152-6 OPEN
1971 The introduction of jet injection mass vaccination into the national smallpox eradication program of Brazil Millar JD, Morris L, Macedo Filho A, Mack TM, Dyal W, Medeiros AA Trop Geogr Med 1971 23(1):89-101
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Brazil and Chile SE/WP/71.48
1971 [Laboratory study of smallpox in patients of the Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil. I. Evaluation of different direct methods of diagnosis]. Portuguese Kirchner E, Noble J, Sesso J, Long G Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 1971 13(4):257-67
1972 [Laboratory study of smallpox in patients of the Emilio Ribas Infectious Disease Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil. II. Evaluation and interpretation of the serodiagnosis]. Portuguese Kirchner E, Noble J, Sesso J, Long G Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 1972 14(2):114-20
1972 Smallpox outbreaks in two Brazilian villages: Epidemiologic characteristics Arnt N, Morris L Am J Epidemiol 1972 95(4):363-70
1973 Smallpox eradication campaign: Brazil situation in 1972 do Amaral C Jr, Ponce de Leon J, Macedo Filho A, de Lemos AL, Varela FG WHO/SE/73.51 PDF
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19
1973 [Viruela hemorragica causada por virus de alastrim: Informe sobre un caso occurrido en Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil]. Spanish
Hemorrhagic smallpox caused by alastrim virus: Report on a case in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. English
Tigre CHF, Martinez AV, Fischmann A Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1973 75(4) 293-296
Bol Oficina Sanit Panam (Engl ed.) 1973 7(3):26-28
OPEN
OPEN
1973 A national reporting system in Brazil de Lemos AL, de Souza OR WHO/SE/73.52 PDF
1974 Smallpox epidemic in a Brazilian community da Costa EA, Morris L WHO/SE/74.64
Am J Epidemiol 1975 101(6):552-61
PDF
1974 Variola minor in Bragança, Paulista County, 1956: Space-time interactions among variola minor cases in two elementary schools Klauber MR, Angulo JJ Am J Epidemiol 1974 99(1):65-74
1976 Freedom from smallpox. Case histories on four countries where cases were missed for extended periods Henderson DA WHO/SE/76.85 PDF
2007 Brazilian vaccinia viruses and their origins Trindade GS, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, Kroon EG, Damon IK Emerg Infect Dis 2007 13(7):965-972 PDF

Chile

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Brazil and Chile SE/WP/71.48
1971 [Evaluación de la vacuna combinada attenuvax-viruela en Chile]. Spanish
Evaluation of combined Attenuvax-smallpox vaccine in Chile. English
Borgoño JM, Greiber R, Heras E, Carrillo B, Solari G, Concha F Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1971 70(3):219-25]
Bol Oficina Sanit Panam (English ed) 1971 6(1):15-20
OPEN
OPEN
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Colombia

Year Title Authors Source
1960 Annual report of the national anti-smallpox vaccination programme in the Republic of Colombia, 1959
Inter-regional Smallpox Conference. New Delhi, India, 14-19 November 1960
WHO/Smallpox/13 PDF
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru SE/WP/71.27
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Ecuador

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru SE/WP/71.27
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19
1976 [Epidemiological control of smallpox virus in Ecuador]. Spanish Gutierrez Vera E Rev Ecuat Hig Med Trop 1976 29:13-24

French Guiana

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru SE/WP/71.27
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Guyana

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Guyana SE/WP/71.58
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Paraguay

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Paraguay SE/WP/71.18
1972 Paraguay: report on a survey to determine the status of smallpox and levels of smallpox immunity WHO/SE/72/38 PDF
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Peru

Year Title Authors Source
1960 Report on the smallpox vaccination campaign carried out during the period October 1950 - December 1955
Seminar on Smallpox Vaccination, Lima, Peru, 20-25 August 1956
de la Fuente EA WHO/Smallpox/12 PDF
1965 [Smallpox epidemic in Iquitos]. Spanish López Vasquez J An Fac Med Lima 1965 48(2):253-76
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru SE/WP/71.27
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Suriname

Year Title Authors Source
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Suriname, Uruguay SE/WP/71.56
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Uruguay

Year Title Authors Source
1968 WER. Importation. From Brazil WHO WER 29 Nov 1968 43(48):617 PDF
1969 WER. Importation. From Brazil WHO WER 26 Sep 1969 44(39):562 PDF
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Suriname and Uruguay SE/WP/71.56
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19

Venezuela

Year Title Authors Source
1970 An alastrim outbreak in the Gran Sabana (State of Bolivar), Venezuela, 1962 Halbrohr JG WHO/SE/70.14 PDF
1971 Report to the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas: Venezuela SE/WP/71.51
1973 Report of the Commission for the Assessment of the Smallpox Eradication Program in the Americas PAHO/CD.22.19